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Please forward this error screen to 104. In 1940 the Italians under Mussolini issue an ultimatum to the Greeks demanding they allow the Italian Army to cross into and occupy Greece. It is Greece’s finest moment and the Greek response inspired the world.
In 1940 the Italians, under the dictator Benito Mussolini, issue an ultimatum to the Greeks demanding they allow the Italian Army to cross into and occupy Greece. It is modern Greece’s finest moment and the Greek response inspired the world. Greece, believing that it will be an easy target. Then on October 28th the Italian minister in Athens brings the written ultimatum which basically demands that the Greeks let the Italian army enter and occupy the country or face their wrath.
Italian troops are pouring into northern Greece from Albania. This is to be another one of those Hellenic moments like the battles against the Persians in Salamis and Marathon. The people of Greece answer the call to defend the country and in just 6 weeks drive the Italian army back into the cold mountains of Albania. It is a major humiliation for the Axis and the first sign that they can be defeated. Russian winter are the beginning of the end of the Third Reich and Greece’s resistance is a major part of the puzzle.
It is Metaxas rejection of the Italian Ultimatum which is celebrated every year in Greece as a National Holiday on October 28th as ‘Ochi Day’. Italian partner to suffer such a humiliation.
Metaxas knows the Greek army is no match for the German war machine and tries desperately to avert an invasion, hoping instead that Hitler will negotiate a truce on the Albanian front between Greece and Italy. But two months after the death of the Prime Minister-for-Life, on the 6th of April, the German Army invades Greece. Alexander Korysis, who has succeeded Metaxas as prime-minister, commits suicide.
They are then evacuated to Egypt to regroup while Greece is occupied by the Germans, Italians and Bulgarians. The soldier obeys, then wraps himself in the blue and white flag and leaps from the walls of the ancient fortress to his death. It is the first public act of resistance in the city. A few days later on the night of May 30th, Manolis Glezos and Apostolis Santas, both 18 years old, tear down the Nazi flag flying from the Acropolis.
It is an act of courage and resistance to Nazi oppression that becomes an inspiration to all subjected people. He is later elected a member of the Pan Hellenic Socialist Party.
Meanwhile in the mountains of Greece the resistance has sprung up, made up mostly of communists. December 1941 as the military arm of EAM. Though EAM is controlled by the Greek Communist Party, its primary cause for now is the liberation of Greece from the Germans and many of their fighters and supporters are neither left nor right.
They simply want to resist the Germans. The membership of EAM has been estimated to be anywhere between half a million to two million members, with the ELAS forces somewhere between forty and seventy thousand members.
Women play an important role in the resistance as fighters as well as support. The Greek resistance attack bridges and supply convoys forcing the Germans to keep a large number of troops in the country.
The Germans plunder the country and make the Greeks pay the costs of the occupation. While the masses in the cities starve, the rich are still able to eat due to a thriving black market, and the Greeks in the agricultural areas generally have enough to survive and even prosper, which creates resentment. Hitler’s government does not give the matter high priority and is in fact sending food from the harvests to their troops in North Africa. The Italians have no surplus and are themselves dependent on German imports.
But Germany declares Greece is under Italian jurisdiction and therefore the responsibility of the Italians. In Athens people are dying at such a high rate that the Christian Orthodox rites of burial are abandoned. As the famine gets worse mental illness is common as people crack under the strain of extreme hunger.
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